Exodus 9-12  Chapter Study


I.   The Exodus • Chs. 1-13:16

A. Israel Oppressed • Ch. 1

B. Moses Is Born • Ch. 2

C. Moses’ Call • Ch. 3-4:17

D. Moses’ Return To Egypt • Ch. 4:18-31

E.  Moses’ First Encounter With Pharaoh • Ch. 5-6:27

F.  Moses’ Second Encounter With Pharaoh • 6:27-7:13

G. The Plagues • 7:14-12:30

1.  7:14-25 • The First Plague – Nile Turns To Blood

2.  8:1-15 • The Second Plague – Frogs

3.  8:16-19 • The Third Plague - Lice

4.  8:20-32 • The Fourth Plague – Flies

Tonight, we have the balance of the 10 Plagues, each of which was a judgment on the gods and power of the mighty Egyptian Kingdom, manifested supremely in the Pharaoh, King of Egypt.


5.  9:1-7 • The Fifth Plague – Livestock Pestilence

1Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord [Yahweh] God of the Hebrews: “Let My people go, that they may serve Me.

Repeatedly in the message Moses brought to Pharaoh was the emphasis on the Name of the God of the Hebrews – “Yahweh.”

Moses emphasized God’s name in each audience with Pharaoh so that Pharaoh would realize this whole thing was not just a political contest of wills between Moses and Pharaoh.

Moses was no mere political revolutionary – he was the prophet for the God who stood far above the petty & impotent deities of Egypt.

So Moses stands before the King of Egypt yet again, and relays the same message from God – “The Hebrews are MY people – not yours!  Let them go that they may serve Me;” meaning worship.

2For if you refuse to let them go, and still hold them, 3behold, the hand of the Lord will be on your cattle in the field, on the horses, on the donkeys, on the camels, on the oxen, and on the sheep—a very severe pestilence. 4And the Lord will make a difference between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt. So nothing shall die of all that belongs to the children of Israel.”’” 5Then the Lord appointed a set time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this thing in the land.”

The ultimatum is delivered – Pharaoh must relent and let the children of Israel go, or the livestock of the Egyptians will be smitten with pestilence.

Pharaoh refused to relent, and the pestilence came.

This plague was directed against the Hathor, a goddess represented by the figure of a cow.

The prosperity of Egypt was based in it’s agriculture, so fertility was a central fixture in their religious system. Hathor was a fertility goddess.

Every cow was held in esteem by the Egyptians because it was a symbol of Hathor.

At one point, the Egyptians lost a battle because their enemies put a herd of cattle in front of their advancing troops, knowing the Egyptians would not endanger the cows by shooting their famed & devastating arrows for fear of hitting the cows.[1]

6So the Lord did this thing on the next day, and all the livestock of Egypt died; but of the livestock of the children of Israel, not one died. 7Then Pharaoh sent, and indeed, not even one of the livestock of the Israelites was dead. But the heart of Pharaoh became hard, and he did not let the people go.

It’s curious why Pharaoh would send to see if the plague had happened just as Moses said, and then when it was verified, he still refused to yield.

Pharaoh resistance to the Lord is being proven to be totally without reason!

Pharaoh likely figured, “Well, it’s too late now!  The livestock is already dead.”

Letting the Hebrews go at this point would be a politically foolish move because it would be admitting his prior decision to not let them go was wrong.

Now that the damage has been done, he might as well keep the children of Israel in bondage.

What Pharaoh didn’t know or willfully remained blind to, was that the people of Egypt, the common people, were quickly coming to the place of wanting him to relent and let the Hebrews go.

They were suffering for his hard-heartedness and rebellion against God.

And so it always is with the rulers of nations – their posture toward the Lord plays out and is born by the people they rule.

6.  9:8-12 • The Sixth Plague - Boils

8So the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take for yourselves handfuls of ashes from a furnace, and let Moses scatter it toward the heavens in the sight of Pharaoh. 9And it will become fine dust in all the land of Egypt, and it will cause boils that break out in sores on man and beast throughout all the land of Egypt.” 10Then they took ashes from the furnace and stood before Pharaoh, and Moses scattered them toward heaven. And they caused boils that break out in sores on man and beast. 11And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for the boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 12But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh; and he did not heed them, just as the Lord had spoken to Moses.

There’s a cycle or series of three in the Plagues.

For two plagues, Moses & Aaron appear before Pharaoh and call on him to release the Hebrews; Pharaoh refuses and the plague comes.

Then the third plague in the cycle comes with no word or warning given to Pharaoh – the plague just descends of the land.  So it is with this, the 6th plague.

Moses takes ash and scatters it and without warning, all of Egypt is struck with hideous boils.

The word “boil” is an apt description of this malady.

The Hebrew word means “to burn” and refers to a large, painful sore that gives a burning sensation.

Imhotep, was the Egyptian god of medicine and healing whom this plague was directed against.

The magician-priests were also the medical practitioners and when the boils afflicted them as well it was understood that their medical prowess could not rebuff the judgment of Yahweh.

7.  9:13-35 • The Seventh Plague - Hail

13Then the Lord said to Moses, “Rise early in the morning and stand before Pharaoh, and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord [Yahweh] God of the Hebrews: “Let My people go, that they may serve Me, 14for at this time I will send all My plagues to your very heart, and on your servants and on your people, that you may know that there is none like Me in all the earth.

Right in the middle of the Plagues, God sends Moses & Aaron to Pharaoh and the court of Egypt with the message that all that’s happening to Egypt is for the express purpose of revealing that there is only one true God – Yahweh, the God of Israel.

The gods the Egyptians worship are false, petty, and cannot save them.

Make no mistake, God isn’t just whooping on the Egyptians to torment them; by these plagues and judgments, He desires them to realize the impotence of their deities, forsake their idolatry, and turn to Him.

So He sends these plagues, as it says in v. 14, “to their very hearts” – to the core of their religion, culture, and worldview, so that they might come to their senses and be saved.

As we’ll see, the Egyptians by and large did!  It was Pharaoh who remained unyielding to the end.

15Now if I had stretched out My hand and struck you and your people with pestilence, then you would have been cut off from the earth.

Though the plagues have been fierce, God reminds them they could have been worse still.

In fact, it was only the mercy of God that had not wiped out the Egyptians already!

16But indeed for this purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth. 17As yet you exalt yourself against My people in that you will not let them go.

God tells Pharaoh and the court of Egypt the reason why they have become the world’s dominant power in the first place.

God had allowed them to rise as the world’s greatest, all so that the children of Israel could find a womb to birth them into a great nation.

The plagues were the birth pains and when it was all said and done – the news that would go forth was that Yahweh, the God of Israel was supreme.

The Apostle Paul echoed this in his message to the Greek philosophers in Athens when he spoke to them.

He said that it is God who appoints the nations, their rise, their fall, their boundaries, and the lessons they teach to history.

This is a thought that ought to comfort our hearts as we listen to the news, read the newspaper, and our Bibles.

All things are progressing just as God has ordained!

Right now, the Cross at Grant Park in Ventura has become the focal point of a battle between different groups. [Elaborate – We must do what prayerful reflection and the Spirit of God dictate, but we leave the outcome to the Lord, trusting that He over-rules in the affairs of Earth, moves City Councils, mayors, judges, governors, and presidents to accomplish His will, His way, to His ends.]

18Behold, tomorrow about this time I will cause very heavy hail to rain down, such as has not been in Egypt since its founding until now. 19Therefore send now and gather your livestock and all that you have in the field, for the hail shall come down on every man and every animal which is found in the field and is not brought home; and they shall die.”’”

The astute reader will immediately say, “Wait a minute – in the 5th plague it says all the livestock of Egypt died.  Where then do these beasts come from?”

The word “all” in v. 6 doesn’t mean “every last single animal.”  It refers to the list of animals given in v. 3; the cattle in the field, horses, donkeys, camels, oxen, and sheep.

Remember, that was a pestilence of some kind, a disease that afflicted the livestock.

Now, it’s the nature of disease to afflict a particular species – rarely does it kill many different types of livestock.

A pestilence that killed a half dozen different kinds of livestock was clearly the judgment of God.

When it says that all the livestock died, it means that many of the animals in each of these 6 groups were killed – but not every last single one of them.

What livestock were left would now be threatened by this horrendous judgment, along with any man, woman, or child who failed to take cover.

20He who feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and his livestock flee to the houses. 21But he who did not regard the word of the Lord left his servants and his livestock in the field.

Some of the Egyptians have come to the place of accepting Moses and Aaron as the prophets of God and when they speak, hearken to their voice.

With the announcement of the 7th plague, they take action to prepare – and for this, they are rewarded!

God is giving one more proof of His mercy here – “Listen to My Word, and live in light of it, and you’ll know blessing.  Reject it at your peril.”

22Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt—on man, on beast, and on every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.” 23And Moses stretched out his rod toward heaven; and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire darted to the ground. And the Lord rained hail on the land of Egypt. 24So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, so very heavy that there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation. 25And the hail struck throughout the whole land of Egypt, all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail struck every herb of the field and broke every tree of the field. 26Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, there was no hail.

Many of the Egyptian gods and goddesses supposedly resided in the sky, and this plague was directed against each of them, but most pointedly at Nut, the goddess who was supposed to control the storms.

The heavens pour forth a fury of hail and lightening that literally terrify and tear the face of Egypt wide open.

There are reports from around the world of hail the size of baseballs.

Every so often, sheets of ice will fall from the sky.

Scientists think that waterspouts over the ocean may suck many gallons of water up into the upper reaches of the atmosphere, where it flash freezes to ice and then comes back to Earth with devastating force.

Whatever the genesis of this hailstorm, it was terrifying!

27And Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “I have sinned this time. The Lord is righteous, and my people and I are wicked. 28Entreat the Lord, that there may be no more mighty thundering and hail, for it is enough. I will let you go, and you shall stay no longer.”

Alright! Pharaoh has come to his senses!  Notice his confession – “I have sinned this time. The Lord is righteous, and my people and I are wicked.”

He’s saying all the right words.  Time for rejoicing, huh?  Not quite.

29So Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will spread out my hands to the Lord;

This is the posture of prayer.  Moses is saying he will pray, he will intercede and the judgment will cease.

 . . . I will spread out my hands to the Lord; the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, that you may know that the earth is the Lord’s. 30But as for you and your servants, I know that you will not yet fear the Lord God.”

How did Moses know this? Because God had already told him!

What I find remarkable here is that in the midst of God’s judgment, when God’s man prayed in response to the even feigned, or supposed repentance of the ungodly, God heard the intercession & stayed the judgment!

There’s something for us to think about as we begin to witness the judgment of God coming on our nation & world.

When people turn and cry out to God for help, rather than just piling on and saying, “You’re only getting your just desserts!” we ought to pray for deliverance.

Yes, speak the truth that God judges the nation that forsakes Him and His ways – but then go on to say that as His people, we will pray for mercy.

In Habakkuk 3:2 we find the prophet of God praying –

O Lord, I have heard Your speech and was afraid; O Lord, revive Your work in the midst of the years! In the midst of the years make it known; In wrath remember mercy.

31Now the flax and the barley were struck, for the barley was in the head and the flax was in bud. 32But the wheat and the spelt [an inferior strain of wheat] were not struck, for they are late crops.

This plague came in that period when the barley and flax were just getting ready for the harvest.

The wheat crop had some weeks yet to go before it would be ready to harvest.

It was those crops which had full, thick heads which would be most prone to ruin form the hail, so the barley and flax crops were totally lost.

33So Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh and spread out his hands to the Lord; then the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain was not poured on the earth. 34And when Pharaoh saw that the rain, the hail, and the thunder had ceased, he sinned yet more; and he hardened his heart, he and his servants. 35So the heart of Pharaoh was hard; neither would he let the children of Israel go, as the Lord had spoken by Moses.

This will be my text for this weekend so I’ll leave further comment till then.



8.  10:1-20 • The Eighth Plague - Locusts

1Now the Lord said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his servants, that I may show these signs of Mine before him, 2and that you may tell in the hearing of your son and your son’s son the mighty things I have done in Egypt, and My signs which I have done among them, that you may know that I am the Lord.”

Many people are bothered by v. 1, where God says He hardened Pharaoh’s heart.

But as we’ve seen in a couple previous studies and as is perfectly illustrated here, Pharaoh’s hardening by God comes in response to Pharaoh’s hardening of his own heart.

This is revealed clearly by looking at the last 2 vs. of ch. 9 and the first verse of ch. 10 –

34And when Pharaoh saw that the rain, the hail, and the thunder had ceased, he sinned yet more; and he hardened his heart, he and his servants. 35So the heart of Pharaoh was hard; neither would he let the children of Israel go, as the Lord had spoken by Moses. 1Now the Lord said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his servants . . .

For the first 7 plagues, Pharaoh hardened his own heart against the Lord.

Even though God was striving with Him by his Spirit and through the clear evidences of His power and mercy.

Now, God stops striving with Pharaoh and honors his choice to resist.

But rather than Pharaoh winning the contest, God, who turns every situation to good, turns Pharaoh’s opposition into a dramatic evidence of His power and superiority over all the might of man.

God will move in such a way as to give many generations to come convincing evidence of His power and ability to save.

3So Moses and Aaron came in to Pharaoh and said to him, “Thus says the Lord God of the Hebrews: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go, that they may serve Me. 4Or else, if you refuse to let My people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your territory. 5And they shall cover the face of the earth, so that no one will be able to see the earth; and they shall eat the residue of what is left, which remains to you from the hail, and they shall eat every tree which grows up for you out of the field. 6They shall fill your houses, the houses of all your servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians—which neither your fathers nor your fathers’ fathers have seen, since the day that they were on the earth to this day.’” And he turned and went out from Pharaoh.

7Then Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long shall this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve the Lord their God. Do you not yet know that Egypt is destroyed?”

Though both Pharaoh & his servants have hardened their hearts, the servants now come to the king with the strong suggestion that he let the males among the Hebrews go to worship Yahweh.

They want to offer a compromise arrangement with Moses & Aaron.

They tell Pharaoh his policy of refusing to negotiate with Moses has led to the virtual destruction of the nation.

8So Moses and Aaron were brought again to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, serve the Lord your God. Who are the ones that are going?”

This is clever; the king tells them they can, as they have asked, go! Oh, by the way, who do you plan on taking?

Now, Moses had been clear – the entire nation is going, but Pharaoh is angling here to make it look like Moses is being unreasonable.

9And Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old; with our sons and our daughters, with our flocks and our herds we will go, for we must hold a feast to the Lord.”

10Then he said to them, “The Lord had better be with you when I let you and your little ones go! Beware, for evil is ahead of you. 11Not so! Go now, you who are men, and serve the Lord, for that is what you desired.” And they were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.

Moses tells Pharaoh that every last person and possession must go.

Pharaoh acts all surprised and says, “If you intend on taking everyone, then you’d better make sure your Yahweh goes too because I’ll come after you and kill you all!  No – the men alone can go – that’s good enough, and if you don’t consent to this, then all bets and deals are off.”

You see, Pharaoh knows that he’s quickly being cast as the bad guy in all that’s happened in the on-going contest with the children of Israel.

Not only do the Hebrews see him as an evil oppressor, but the Egyptians themselves see him as the cause of the trouble that has destroyed their land and lives.

Pharaoh has to turn the tables and make it look like Moses in the trouble-maker; the cause of the ruin.

He hopes this last piece of negotiation will make Moses appear unreasonable.

Pharaoh says, “You can go worship – you men!  But you cannot take anyone else.”  Moses says, “It’s all or nothing.”

The tactic Pharaoh takes here reminds me of the negotiations taking place between the Palestinians and the Israelis right now. [Elaborate]

12Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land—all that the hail has left.” 13So Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and the Lord brought an east wind on the land all that day and all that night. When it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts. 14And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and rested on all the territory of Egypt. They were very severe; previously there had been no such locusts as they, nor shall there be such after them. 15For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they ate every herb of the land and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left. So there remained nothing green on the trees or on the plants of the field throughout all the land of Egypt.

Locusts were and are one of the most dreaded calamities of many parts of the world.

When they descend on a field, they strip it absolutely bear of anything green.

Egypt had seen locusts before, but not to this extent.

They might eat a few acres and then fly off, but this plague settled over the entire nation!

This plague was a judgment on Seth, the god who protected the crops.

16Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste, and said, “I have sinned against the Lord your God and against you. 17Now therefore, please forgive my sin only this once, and entreat the Lord your God, that He may take away from me this death only.”

The king again appears to be repentant, and Moses again responds.

18So he went out from Pharaoh and entreated the Lord. 19And the Lord turned a very strong west wind, which took the locusts away and blew them into the Red Sea. There remained not one locust in all the territory of Egypt. 20But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go.

Again, God hardened Pharaoh’s heart in the sense that He accepted the posture Pharaoh had already chosen to put his heart in, and that was rebellion to the Lord.

9.  10:21-29 • The Ninth Plague - Darkness

21Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, darkness which may even be felt.”

As the third in the third series of three, this plague is again unannounced.

Chief among the deities the Egyptians worshiped was Ra, the Sun-god.

This was their supreme deity and the one they believed had allowed them to rise as the dominant power in the earth.

Pharaoh was Ra’s earthly regent, and as such, his embodiment.

A plague of darkness would mean Ra’s complete impotence and the breaking of Pharaoh’s power.

This darkness was a supernatural judgment in which light as a physical property was banished from the land of Egypt.

22So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days. 23They did not see one another; nor did anyone rise from his place for three days. But all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

The darkness was so complete, no one in all Egypt could move about.

It was a total disorientation because sight was rendered ineffectual.

If you’ve ever taken a tour of a cave and they turn off the lights, you know how unnerving a total absence of light can be.

It’s said that a complete absence of light for more than a few days is enough to make many people go totally insane.

In His mercy, God limited this darkness to just 3 days.

And during the entire time, the land of Goshen and the houses of the children of Israel had light.

What an apt picture of the difference between the home and lifestyle of the lost and the home-life of the people of God.

When the light came back up, Pharaoh again sent for Moses.

Moses arrived to find the king “chillin’ like a villain.”

He’s already got another little scheme cooked up . . .

24Then Pharaoh called to Moses and said, “Go, serve the Lord; only let your flocks and your herds be kept back. Let your little ones also go with you.”

The previous negotiation had been for only the men to go but Moses had demanded all the people be allowed to go.

Pharaoh appears to relent; but he slips in a lesser condition; they must leave their possessions, specifically, their livestock behind.

25But Moses said, “You must also give us sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God. 26Our livestock also shall go with us; not a hoof shall be left behind. For we must take some of them to serve the Lord our God, and even we do not know with what we must serve the Lord until we arrive there.”

When Israel finally leaves Egypt, they must go out completely!

They can leave nothing behind, not only they, but all they possess must be taken to offer up in worship and service to God.

Moses says, “We won’t know what or how to worship Yahweh till we get to the place He meets with us.  Then He will instruct us in His worship and what it means to be His people. So we must carry everything to Him.”

The deliverance of Israel from bondage in Egypt is a picture and type of our deliverance from bondage to sin & death.

Egypt represents the world. And just as Egypt was governed by Pharaoh who was an evil and harsh task-master, so Satan is the god of this world, as it says in 2 Cor. 4:4, who oppresses and opposes the people of God.

Israel was finally delivered in the Passover by the blood of a lamb, and we’re delivered by the blood of our Passover Lamb – Jesus Christ.

When they went out of Egypt, they went out completely – all they had, all they were.

They left nothing behind – everything went!

In the same way, our salvation covers and concerns everything we have and are.

It isn’t just a “church-thing”, a religious-thing.  It’s a life-thing; EVERYthing!

Our salvation will effect our possessions – what we eat, what we wear, what we listen to and watch, how we play, how we work, where we go, what we do when we get there.

Moses said, “When we leave, not a hoof shall be left behind.”

Is that the attitude we have regarding our Christianity?

Or have we left some hooves in Egypt, in the world?

It’s said that when the Crusaders prepared to launch on their crusade they submitted to mass baptism.

They were taken to the riverside and then would wade en-masse out into the water and dunk themselves when the priest who stood on the bank of the river gave the liturgy of baptism.

But as they went under the water, each held his sword hand above his head so it would not be baptized.

They wanted to be saved – but did not want that salvation to extend to the way they made war.

They wanted to rape, pillage and kill, and knew that the teachings of Christ and the true Christian faith did not support such evil.

They thought they could have saved souls but wicked hands.

There is no such thing – A wicked hand is a sign of an evil soul.

A saved soul produces a sanctified hand.

Are there any hooves you’ve left in Egypt?  An unwashed hand?  A perverse eye?  A dry wallet, maybe?

27But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go. 28Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me! Take heed to yourself and see my face no more! For in the day you see my face you shall die!”

In his hardened rebellion, Pharaoh uses Moses’ seeming refusal to compromise as the basis for breaking off negotiations altogether!

The man Moses is clearly unreasonable – so Pharaoh says he will deal with him no more.

In fact, if Moses ever comes to him again, it’s curtains!

29So Moses said, “You have spoken well. I will never see your face again.”



10. 11:1-3 • The Final Plague Announced To Moses

1And the Lord said [really, “had said”] to Moses, “I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt. Afterward he will let you go from here. When he lets you go, he will surely drive you out of here altogether. 2Speak now in the hearing of the people, and let every man ask from his neighbor and every woman from her neighbor, articles of silver and articles of gold.” 3And the Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh’s servants and in the sight of the people.

Vs. 1-3 give us a little behind the scenes information about what God had revealed to Moses.

God told him there would be one final plague and then Pharaoh would not only let the children of Israel go, he would drive them out.

God told Moses that the people of Egypt, instead of being hostile toward the Hebrews, were holding them in special esteem and that they were ready to bless them with an abundance of wealth.

It was the bondage of Hebrews which had enriched them, therefore it was only right that they pay them for their service.

In v. 4, we return to Moses & Aaron as the stand before Pharaoh during that last interview following the 9th Plague.

11. 11:4-10 • Final Plague Announced To Pharaoh

4Then Moses said, “Thus says [Yahweh] the Lord: ‘About midnight I will go out into the midst of Egypt; 5and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the handmill, and all the firstborn of the animals. 6Then there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as was not like it before, nor shall be like it again. 7But against none of the children of Israel shall a dog move its tongue, against man or beast, that you may know that the Lord does make a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.’ 8And all these your servants shall come down to me and bow down to me, saying, ‘Get out, and all the people who follow you!’ After that I will go out.” Then he went out from Pharaoh in great anger.

Moses was angry because of the incredible and useless loss of life Pharaoh was bringing on his people – and all because he was a stubborn man who would not surrender to God.

9But the Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not heed you, so that My wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.” 10So Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh; and the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

Not until the 10th and final plague which we come to in chapter 12.

But that brings us to the institution of the Passover and some absolutely incredible stuff that is just too good and too much so we’ll leave it for next week.

[1] Guzik, David,  On-Line Commentary on Exodus