The Flat Earth Movement

Is it “Biblical Cosmology”?
A Reasoned, Biblical Examination

Earthrise, taken on December 24, 1968, by Apollo 8 astronaut William Anders. Public Domain.


2 Timothy 2:23 • But refuse foolish and ignorant speculations, knowing that they produce quarrels.


        Answering the claims of the Flat Earth movement might seem like an arcane topic to waste time on—Surely no one really believes this stuff, you might think. But, according to research, 2% of Americans claim to believe the earth is flat. Further inquiry suggests only half actually believe this. The rest are “trolling,” finding perverse pleasure in stirring up controversy, or keeping up the revenue stream on their YouTube channel with a steady stream of outrageous “click bait” content to attract the gullible.
        But still, with roughly 1% truly believing in a flat earth, any large church will have a number of people who adhere to this, and because it can be so terribly divisive, the following is our response.


        We need to start by defining terms. Christian flat–earth believers insist their view be labeled “Biblical Cosmology,” rather than “Flat Earth.” This term, though, is pejorative and insulting to Bible–believing Christians who don’t agree with radical flat–earth views! Therefore, the term “Biblical Cosmology” won’t be used in this pamphlet for flat earth beliefs. The fact is, the Christian flat earth movement is a fringe group claiming exclusive truth and superiority over other Christians, just as the cults do. Therefore, it is most appropriate to call this movement, “Flat Earthism,” or abbreviated, F.E.


        Flat Earthism quickly leads to division in the church. Imagine, for example, a church attended by solid, biblical Christians who happen to work in the aerospace industry. F.E. claims the space industry is a money–making deception, and accuse these sincere Christians of perpetuating a fraud with their very livelihood.
        Some flat earthers might suggest, “Can’t we just agree that God could make the earth and sky any shape He wanted to?” The answer is: NO! There is a big difference between what God could have done and what He actually did. We must not accommodate absurdity for the sake of Christian fellowship—Biblical doctrine is based on truth, not fantasy. Be warned: flat earthers are passionate about their esoteric cosmology and will soon be warning fellow Christians of the “satanic deception” of the “spherical globe” model, and teaching this to the kids in Sunday School.
        F.E. is also a hindrance to evangelism. It claims NASA foisted the idea of a spherical earth and a vast universe on the public in order to promote atheism and evolution, so in order to win more souls, they say we must preach a flat earth and sky dome cosmology. But how many people would come to Christ if they were told they had to believe in a flat earth? Our evangelistic success in the world would quickly cease. This is obviously a massive stumbling block to the Gospel!
        The bottom line is F.E. causes consternation, insult, disunity, and a stumbling block to the Gospel. There is simply no room for it in a healthy Christian community.


        In this pamphlet we will briefly summarize a few key flat earth beliefs, and why they aren’t supported biblically, rationally, or observationally. But this won’t cover every argument that F.E. presents, mainly because there are so many differing flat earth “models”–each contradicting the others. And with each refutation, they come up with a slew of “but what about…” objections. It is an endless and futile debate.


Though there are many different variations of F.E., here are some key tenants most agree with:


        F.E. says the UN Flag inadvertently reveals the “correct” earth model: the north pole is at the center of the earth, and the sun and moon rotate around an unknown force above the pole. The seasons occur as the sun moves closer or further from the artic pole, and the changing lengths of days is due to the changing speed of the sun’s circuit across the sky.
        Not seen on the UN map is what keeps the oceans from flowing over the edges of the earth: a massive ice wall, which we typically think of as “Antarctica.” Instead of a continent at the “bottom” of a globe, this land mass is actually spread out like a wall surrounding the world. There is no “south pole,” no one has ever explored the inner regions of Antarctica, and the nations of the world have conspired to keep it off limits, preventing people from discovering the truth. Anyone who claims to have sailed around Antarctica, proving it is round, is lying.
        Also, airlines flying “Great Circle” routes from Southern Africa, South America, or Australia intentionally fly longer routes and waste fuel in order to perpetuate the mythical “globe” model of the world.


        F.E. says the word “firmament” in Genesis 1 (KJV), refers to a firm, solid dome the stars are attached to. Even though this term only describes the shape of the stellar heavens above, the earth must be flat to support this architecture. F.E.’s bottom line is this: because the folks in the Bible believed they lived on a flat earth with sky dome, it must be correct.
        The altitude of the sky dome is a matter of much debate and conjecture by F.E., but it is typically suggested the dome is about 3100 miles above the earth at the north pole, but it descends down to meet the Antarctic ice wall, where it is attached to the earth. The solid dome rotates around the earth, accounting for the motion of the stars, but it is a mystery how this works. Another mystery is where the stars in the south go when they disappear below the horizon, and why the stars at the horizon don’t appear enormous when a person is near the “artic wall,” since they would be thousands of miles closer to the viewer!
        F.E. says the sun is a small light source that circles the earth on a flat plane below the sky dome, at about 3000 miles altitude. It never truly goes below the apparent “horizon,” but rather, recedes into the far–off distance, leaving regions in the dark until it returns. The mystery of why the sun isn’t visible 24–hours a day is explained by describing it like a spotlight which only shines directly below it. The best explanation of the force that keeps the sun circling the north pole is simply God’s supernatural power.
        F.E. says the moon is also a light source. It doesn’t reflect the Sun, but rather, creates its own light. The phases of the moon are caused by God supernaturally. The planets are actually stars and create their own light as well; they don’t reflect the sun’s light. They are “wanderers” because they change position on the face of the sky dome. How this occurs is a mystery, as is the explanation of why Mercury and Venus have phases but the outer planets do not.


        F.E. teaches that because the Bible says the earth has unshakable “foundations,” it must be fixed and unmovable. It doesn’t float through space or orbit the sun. There are various theories about what the earth sits on, or what is beyond the ice wall of the earth, but F.E. claims this is ultimately unknowable.


        F.E. says gravity is a myth. There is no gravitational mass attraction, so for example, if there were no atmosphere, and we existed in a vacuum, all the objects and beings on the earth would float away.
        Instead, F.E. offers two very different explanations to explain what keeps objects falling to the ground, (1) “buoyancy” or (2) “acceleration.”
(1) Weight is determined by buoyancy, or in other words, an object’s density, meaning that heavy things sink in relation to air pressure, and lighter things rise. At higher altitudes, where the air is thinner, we are less buoyant, and therefore weigh more (even though the opposite is actually true: a simple scale shows you weigh less at higher elevations, since you are further from the earth’s mass).
(2) Another explanation of weight is acceleration. The flat earth and dome sky is moving upward, creating acceleration, which we mistakenly attribute to “gravity.” Acceleration, of course, requires a constant rate of increasing speed, so after several thousand years, we’d have to be moving well past the speed of light to maintain “gravity.” So, this is a mystery as well.


        Famously, F.E. claims NASA (which was founded by anti–Christian Freemasons) has perpetuated a myth since the 1960s with space flight and the moon race. Pictures of a global earth from space is just clever photo editing trickery. You also can’t trust any testimony from astronauts who claim to have been in space; they are all lying in order to perpetuate NASA’s atheism.


Here we will unpack some of the scriptures F.E. uses to support the idea of a “flat, arctic–centric earth” and the “solid dome heavens.”


Is the whole earth visible at once?

Job 28:24 • for he views the ends of the earth and sees everything under the heavens.

        God doesn’t look at the earth from a single fixed vantage point. He exists outside of time and space and sees all places at once. To say this proves a flat earth is to say that God exists within our creation instead of outside of creation, limiting His deity and omnipresence!

Can an extremely tall object be seen by everyone on earth?

Daniel 4:10–11 • Behold, there was a tree in the midst of the earth and its height was great. ‘The tree grew large and became strong And its height reached to the sky, And it was visible to the end of the whole earth.

        F.E. says this is a slam dunk to prove a flat earth. The problem is they take this completely out of context. First—this speaks of a dream the king was having, so it wasn’t a real visible tree. But the real issue is verses 20–22…

Daniel 4:20–22 • ‘The tree that you saw, which became large and grew strong, whose height reached to the sky and was visible to all the earth and whose foliage was beautiful and its fruit abundant, and in which was food for all, under which the beasts of the field dwelt and in whose branches the birds of the sky lodged—it is you, O king; for you have become great and grown strong, and your majesty has become great and reached to the sky and your dominion to the end of the earth.

        So, the tree in the dream was only symbolic of the king’s mighty reputation, which was known across a vast empire.

Can you see the whole earth from a tall mountain?

Matthew 4:8 • Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor.

        This view of the whole earth was supernatural. Even if the earth were flat, it would have been a miraculous thing to see the distant kingdoms. Therefore, this verse doesn’t prove a flat earth, or disprove a global earth.

Does Jesus’ return prove a flat earth?

Revelation 1:7 • BEHOLD, HE IS COMING WITH THE CLOUDS, and every eye will see Him…

        This might seem like a “gotcha,” except not even on a flat earth would this be possible with the naked eye! Jesus, descending as a Man from Heaven, would be pretty difficult to see from thousands of miles away.
        God revealing His Son to the world in a supernatural vision visible to everyone seems more reasonable.
        Another explanation that makes sense is thinking about the futuristic setting of Jesus’ return. Technology makes it possible that any event is instantly visible through social media world–wide. When Jesus returns, with millions of cell phones capturing the moment, every eye will clearly see it.

Is the horizon a fixed line?

Proverbs 8:27 • I was there when he set the heavens in place, when he marked out the horizon on the face of the deep...

Job 26:10 • He marks out the horizon on the face of the waters for a boundary between light and darkness.

        Flat earth folks quote these verses to say the horizon is the fixed boundary of the flat earth, where the seas meet the Antarctic ice wall. Yet, F.E. admits that you can’t see the distant islands over the ocean; their convoluted explanations involve optical distortions and thermal convections over the ocean. But even from the highest point on Hawaii, Mauna Kea, at 13,803 feet high, known for incredibly clear visibility at the summit, one cannot see mainland USA—not even with the most powerful telescope. This makes no sense on a flat earth.

Where are the ends of the earth?

Job 37:3 • He unleashes his lightning beneath the whole heaven and sends it to the ends of the earth.

Isaiah 11:12 • He will raise a banner for the nations and gather the exiles of Israel; he will assemble the scattered people of Judah from the four quarters of the earth.

Revelation 7:1 • After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth to prevent any wind from blowing on the land or on the sea or on any tree.

        The terms “Four Corners” and “Ends” of the earth do not mean the earth is flat with an edge. Scripturally, Isaiah 11:12 says God gathers His tribes from the “four quarters of the earth” where they were scattered. The Bible tells us they were scattered to places like Assyria, Babylon, Asia Minor, Northern Africa, Spain, etc. These “quarters” are nowhere near the supposed ice–wall edge of the earth we call Antarctica! In fact, “four quarters” or “corners” is actually the four points of the compass, meaning, every direction.
        But also, most flat earth models show a round plate—so where are the “corners”? This is another example of clear contradictions within various F.E. theories.


Some of the scriptures used by F.E. to say the earth doesn’t move through space are:

1 Chronicles 16:30 • Tremble before him, all the earth! The world is firmly established; it cannot be moved.

Psalms 93:1 • The LORD reigns, he is robed in majesty; the LORD is robed in majesty and armed with strength; indeed, the world is established, firm and secure.

        When the Bible speaks of the earth’s permanence, it isn’t speaking in terms of movement through space; it is speaking of the stability of the earth beneath one’s feet, which illustrate how God is unchanging, faithful, and reliable. For the person standing on the surface of the earth, it doesn’t seem to move and mountains seem to stand there forever. These passages are making no reference to how the earth moves through space.
        Now consider:

Psalm 46:2 • Therefore we will not fear, though the earth should change And though the mountains slip into the heart of the sea...

Job 9:5–6 • It is God who removes the mountains, they know not how, When He overturns them in His anger; Who shakes the earth out of its place, And its pillars tremble

        F.E. insists the earth doesn’t move at all, but according to these verses, the earth does move and change, and the mountains eventually crumble. Clearly, verses about the world being “firmly established” and that it “cannot be moved” are dramatic figures of speech, and they have nothing to do with the planet moving through space.


Psalms 104:5 • He set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved.

1 Samuel 2:8 • …“For the foundations of the earth are the Lord’s; on them he has set the world.

Psalms 75:3 • When the earth and all its people quake, it is I who hold its pillars firm.

        Are these passages meant to be read as literal, that the earth sits on actual pillars, or are these metaphors for God’s creative work, like an architect or carpenter building a home? Look at the larger context of the first passage:

Psalms 104:1–5
1       Bless the LORD, O my soul! O LORD my God, You are very great; You are clothed with splendor and majesty,
2       Covering Yourself with light as with a cloak, Stretching out heaven like a tent curtain.
3       He lays the beams of His upper chambers in the waters; He makes the clouds His chariot; He walks upon the wings of the wind;
4       He makes the winds His messengers, Flaming fire His ministers.
5       He established the earth upon its foundations, So that it will not totter forever and ever.

        Clearly, this is metaphorically describing God like the builder of a grand structure. Light, stars, wind, rain, clouds, mountains—each has a simile in the house being made. The earth, then, is pictured sitting on a foundation because a home sits on a foundation. This doesn’t mean there is literally a mysterious structure that the flat earth sits upon. And, it is reasonable to approach similar passages speaking of pillars and foundation with the same interpretation.
Also, consider how “pillars” and “foundations” are used in these verses:

Job 26:11 • The pillars of heaven tremble And are amazed at His rebuke.

2 Samuel 22:8 • The foundations of heaven were trembling And were shaken

        According to these, the heavens are also set upon pillars and foundations! F.E. must take these verses literally as well, but there aren’t “pillars” of heaven in their various models of the heavens and the earth.


Some of the scriptures F.E. uses to support a solid sky dome are:

Genesis 1:6–8 • Then God said, “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. So the evening and the morning were the second day.

Isaiah 40:22 • He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers. He stretches out the heavens like a canopy, and spreads them out like a tent to live in.

Is the firmament "firm"?

        “Firmament” doesn’t not mean “sky dome;” as in a solid, stone–like ceiling. The word “Firmament” in Genesis 1:7 is the Hebrew word “Raqia.” Because this word is associated with metal working, the flat–earther says the firmament is “firm.” This misunderstands the origin of the word.
        "Raqia" speaks of metal that is stretched out over something else: like a gold or bronze leaf on the tabernacle furnishings, so we understand the raqia as describing the “expanse” of the heavens, which God stretched out as a canopy. This is seen in Isaiah 40:22, which compares the heavens to a “curtain” or a “tent.” So, the word doesn’t mean a solid dome, but rather, that from our perspective, the stars are stretched out overhead like a canopy or tent, and have the glorious beauty of gold–leaf workmanship.
        "Raqia" is best explained by its root word raqa, which describes “stamping out, or stretching forth.” "Raqa" is used to denote God spreading out the earth (Isaiah 42:5, 44:24), stretching out the land above the water (Psalm 136:6), or stretching out the skies (Job 37:18). It also describes stamping one’s feet in Ezekiel 25:6 & 6:11.

Why do the KJV and the NKJV use "firmament"?

        Most Bible versions render “raqia” as “expanse.” The KJV and NKJV use the word “firmament,” and the explanation involves some history.
        One hundred years after the Hebrew Old Testament was completed, it was translated into Greek near Alexandria. This is known as the Septuagint (LXX), and there is evidence it was widely used in the time of Christ, so it is highly regarded. Even so, the LXX is merely a translation and not the original Hebrew Bible.
        When the translators of the LXX were translating the Hebrew word raqia to speak of the stellar heavens into Greek, they used the word stereoma, which means “the heavens.” The trouble comes from Greek philosophy, which at the time had a theory of a “stone vault” of heaven, so stereoma took on this connotation. And so, when the Greek LXX was translated into Latin, the word firmamentum was used to translate stereoma.
        Next came the English translation: because the King James Bible used the Vulgate (the Latin Bible) as a primary source, it uses the word “firmament” for the Hebrew raqia. The Strong’s Concordance follows the KJV’s word choice, and has unfortunately caused needless confusion. So, to sum up: “Firmament” comes from the Greek translation of the OT text, and reflects Greek philosophical ideas, as well as the Latin Vulgate. “Firmament” does not well represent the original Hebrew text.

Does the “firmament” hold up the “waters above”?

        There is a clue here to understanding the “waters above the firmament” in Psalm 104:3—He lays the beams of His upper chambers in the waters; He makes the clouds His chariot; He walks upon the wings of the wind.
        In this metaphor, God is building above the waters of the clouds! Here is how several conservative Bible commentaries explain the “waters above” in Genesis 1:
Bible Knowledge Commentary:
Genesis 1:6–8. On the second day God separated the atmospheric waters from the terrestrial waters by an arching expanse, the sky. This suggests that previously there had been a dense moisture enshrouding the earth. God’s work involves making divisions and distinctions.
ESV Study Bible:
Genesis 1:6­–8 waters. As light was separated from darkness, so waters are separated to form an expanse (vv. 6–7), which God calls Heaven (v. 8). As the ESV footnote illustrates by offering the alternative term “sky,” it is difficult to find a single English word that accurately conveys the precise sense of the Hebrew term shamayim, “heaven/heavens.” In this context, it refers to what humans see above them, i.e., the region that contains both celestial lights (vv. 14–17) and birds (v. 20).
Christian Standard Bible Study Notes:
Genesis 1:6 Based on a verb that can refer to covering something with a thin sheet of metal (Nm 16:39; Is 40:19), the noun expanse always refers to the vast spread of the open sky.
Genesis 1:7 God’s second act of separation was to divide atmospheric water from terrestrial water. Thus he began the process of giving form to the material world. The clause it was so, found six times in this chapter, emphasizes God’s absolute power over creation.
Genesis 1:8 Sky can refer to the earth’s atmospheric envelope (v. 20), outer space (v. 15), or “heaven,” the spiritual realm where God lives (Ps 11:4).

What about Job 37:18, “the skies, hard as a mirror”

Job 37:18 • ...can you join him in spreading out the skies, hard as a mirror of cast bronze?

        F.E. points to Job 37:18 as a reference to the solid dome heavens above. Actually, in this passage, Elihu is referring to wind, clouds, lightning, storms, ice, downpours of rain, south winds. So, this “hard, cast bronze sky” is referring to a heavy storm cloud, because the wind comes to clear it up in verse 21! This is not a reference to the “vault of heaven.” This is a great example of why context is so critical in Bible study!


Isaiah 40:2 • It is He who sits above the circle of the earth

        F.E. says this verse only speaks of the round, flat, pancake–shaped earth; that the Hebrew word here is the same as a draftsman’s compass inscribing a circle on a flat plane. This is incorrect! This same word speaks of the “vault” of heaven—Job 22:14 • And He walks on the vault of heaven. The heavens do appear vaulted from our vantage point (even though it isn’t an actual solid dome), so Job calls the sky the “vault” of heaven. This proves that in Isaiah 40, the term “circle” can mean spherical. Now, Isaiah might actually mean “horizon”—but this verse lines up with reality either way!

Job 26:7 • He stretches out the north over empty space And hangs the earth on nothing.

        This verse clearly states that the stars are above empty space, not a solid dome, and the earth is suspended “on” or “over” nothing! There is no mention of pillars or foundations for the earth or for the heavens. To F.E., which typically reads scripture through extreme literalism, this verse is a conundrum!

Mark 1:32 • When evening came, after the sun had set…

        According to scripture, the sun sets by going below the horizon. The Greek word for “set” is defined by the Strong’s dictionary as, “to go into, enter. 2 go under, be plunged into, sink in.” The sun doesn’t stay above the horizon and only appear to set as an optical illusion, as F.E. demands.

Deuteronomy 30:4 • (CSV) Even if your exiles are at the farthest horizon [or “ends of the earth,” or “farthest parts under heaven”], he will gather you and bring you back from there.

Isaiah 13:5 • They are coming from a far country, From the farthest horizons…

        The word for “horizon” here is the word for heavens, and it means where the sky visibly meets the earth. Notice these verses describe people appearing in the distance on the horizon; the horizon is not where the sky dome meets the ice wall at the edge of the earth.


        Flat earth folks enthusiastically engage in armchair physics, astronomy, and other “sciences” to prove their cosmology, yet the simplest observations can be made of God’s creation to prove a spherical earth, and, importantly, the absurdity of this whole debate.

Romans 1:20 • For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made…

        Romans 1:20 tells us God has revealed His attributes through Creation, so we can know Him better by studying both scripture and His vast creation. F.E. diminishes the scope of the universe, and therefore, the scope of God’s creative work, diminishing His glory and greatness.


        We have beautiful sunsets over our ocean; the clouds explode into riotous colors of pink, lavenders, and blues. This only happens because the sun below the horizon is shining up onto the bottom of the clouds. Sunsets like the one below would be impossible if the sun were always 3100 miles above the clouds, as F.E. teaches. You can see it with your own eyes—the earth is clearly spherical!
[Source: Marcus Dall Col,]


        The sun and the moon both average about 1/2 of 1 degree in apparent size. Hold up your pinky finger at arm's length—that is probably about 1 degree in width, twice the width of the moon or sun. Whether directly overhead or at the horizon, the sun and the moon are still 1/2 of 1 degree in size. (The moon might appear ginormous as it rises on the horizon, but this is a trick of scale: measure the size of the moon with that pinky finger—it is the same at any placement in the sky.)
        Here's the point: the size of the moon and sun don't change as they move overhead, as the flat earth model requires! If F.E. was correct, the sun, being only 3000 miles away, would be twice as large overhead at noon than its apparent size at sunset.
        F.E. tries to explain it this way: The thicker atmosphere light passes through at the horizon makes things only appear larger, so you can’t trust your eyes about the sun's or moon’s size. This is an absurd explanation, and completely contrary to what we can clearly observe with our own eyes. But finally, even at higher altitudes, above the thick atmosphere, the sun and moon are still always 1/2 of 1 degrees.
        The fact that we have solar eclipses proves the point. Even though the sun is 400 times larger than the moon, it is 400 times further away, so they always appear to be just about the same size, which is why we can have total solar eclipses. F.E. can't explain this phenomena at all.


        F.E. says the moon is an independent light source—a “lesser” light. It doesn’t reflect the light of the sun. Yet, a view through a telescope shows that the mountains and craters on the moon cast shadows on its surface, and these shadows change as the moon’s phases change. It isn’t creating its own light; it is reflecting the sun.
[Photo by author]


        The moon is visible in all regions of the earth, so we clearly know it is a sphere, or else it would look like a flat disc when it is low on the horizon. But the moon only shows one face toward the planet, as it is tidally locked with the earth. But if the flat–earth model was correct, you’d be able to see the rest of the moon’s surface—the far side of the moon—depending on where on the planet you are viewing the moon.


        We live along the coast; the low–lying outer Channel Islands aren’t visible until you get a couple of thousand feet above sea level, from the hills surrounding Ventura. F.E. claims humidity on the surface of the ocean obscures distant objects on the ocean, which explains why things “disappear” below the horizon. Yet, take a look for yourself! Watch a large freighter ship leave the harbor and sink below the horizon. It is an easy observation to make!
        Below is a popular proof of the earth’s curve: the Thorntonbank Wind Farm, which is located about 28km offshore Belgium. You can clearly see the curvature of the earth in this photo...
[Source: Wiki Media Commons]


        As Bible–believing Christians, our true focus is on what the Bible teaches, and what Nature reveals to us about God. Yet, because F.E. makes such a huge deal about it, we need to address the NASA conspiracy. Shaping one’s beliefs based on conspiratorial fear isn’t a healthy way to form a world–view or a life of faith.

NASA Freemasons
        Flat Earthers point out that many of those in early NASA were practicing Freemasons, therefore they were clearly concocting a global deception.
        The answer is: “Partially yes.” It is true that many in the 1960’s were involved in Freemasonry, even some claiming to be Christians. This is unfortunate and we don’t condone involvement in this occult fraternal society.
        But consider this: there have been many sincere and Biblical followers of Jesus, including famous pastors and preachers, who foolishly accepted Freemasonry’s premise that it wasn’t a religion, but rather a helpful fraternal organization. Most believed Masonry simply emphasized good moral character, hard work, and social benevolence. Only the few who progressed to the “higher” levels were exposed to its truly cultic practices.
        It wasn’t until the internet age, when better information about Freemasonry’s beliefs and practices became available, that involvement in it by Christians dropped off. We can perhaps forgive believers in the 1960s for ignorantly participating in this; but not so much in the 2020s!

        Regardless of their Freemasonry connections, NASA in the 1960s had many devoted Christians in the front lines of space exploration. Some of the most well–known include:
John Glenn (Glenn, a Mercury astronaut, was a Presbyterian elder and Sunday school teacher)
Gordon Cooper (His Mercury capsule recorded him praying aloud during his flight—asking God that his experience would make him a better Christian.)
Ed White (As he made the first US spacewalk, said he sensed God’s presence with him. He planned on taking a Bible to the moon, but died in the Apollo 1 fire.)
Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, Bill Anders (On Apollo 8, these three devoted Christians read from Genesis 1 to the listening world while orbiting the moon at Christmas.)
Buzz Aldrin (Buzz, a Presbyterian, celebrated communion before walking on the moon on Apollo 11.)
Jim Irwin (A marginal Christian in his early NASA career, Jim had an overwhelming sense of God’s presence while walking on the moon on Apollo 15, leading to a rebirth of faith, and saving his marriage. He famously searched for Noah’s Ark after NASA.)
Charlie Duke (Duke became a believer a few years after his Apollo 16 mission. He says his walk with Jesus was even more exciting than his walk on the moon.)
        It is incredibly arrogant to slander the character and reputation of these men, suggesting they were part of a fake moon landing conspiracy. They were bold and unashamed Christians, proclaiming their faith even while exploring space, risking their lives, and even losing their lives, believing in the value of space exploration and the importance of this project for the country.

NASA’s Mission
        NASA’s mission in the 1960s was not to promote the Big Bang, evolution, or atheism, but rather, to help beat the atheistic, communist Soviet Union in the Cold War. Science was tacked on to later Apollo missions in an attempt to expand the role of the program and make it more beneficial and interesting for the American taxpayers. After Apollo, during the Space Shuttle era, science did become a key mission of NASA. But, to be clear, the primary goal of the original space missions was to take a huge technological leap in aeronautics and beat the “godless, atheist Soviets” to the moon, which was much preferable to a nuclear conflict.
        And consider this: NASA isn’t the only space program today. We have many nations and even private commercial companies sending astronauts into space. These are in competition—they aren’t all working together to promote a sixty–year old fraud. If they knew this was bogus, why would they be wasting time and money on it?


        Very simply, let’s move past foolish speculations and spiritual elitism of esoteric worldviews and conspiratorial thinking, and let us focus on Christ alone; then we can share in the beautiful unity found in Him and the clear truth of God’s word.
Unless notes, all images public domain via
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